Deborah's story seems straightforward to me, so if there's any madness to it, it would be that it's taken 300 years for these records to be put in the right order. I can't believe I'm the first to see it.
Deborah as Deborah Barrows appears in three records. The first is the baptism of her youngest child, Ebenezer. [Plymouth Church Records 1620-1859 Volumes 22 and 23 of the Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts (Boston, the society, 1920), I:257]. This event is undated but falls between two other dated events 29 March and 17 May 1685. Deborah is mentioned in the will of her husband, John Barrows written on 12 January 1691/2 [Plymouth Co. Probate 1:133]. Then as Deborah Barrows she married Joseph Bucland (sic) on 17 October 1693 at Plymouth.
Deborah's eldest child was Deborah Barrows who married Nathan Fish on 20 December 1687 at Plymouth. [Plymouth VRs, p. 85]. If 22 at marriage she was born about 1665. That means that John Barrows married Deborah about 1664, and if she were about 22 at marriage, she was born about 1642. [My use of 22 for female first marriages and 25 for male first marriages is the average used in the Great Migration Project]. That birth date works well since Deborah has children from 1665 to 1685, a normal twenty year span and she would have been about 43 at the birth of her last child. It would also make her 78 at death.
Joseph Buckland was born about 1633, probably in England, the son of William and Mary (Bosworth) Buckland. He married first at Rehoboth, Deborah Allen on 5 November 1659 [Rehoboth VRs, p. 65]. Deborah was born about 1639 at Barnstable, daughter of John and Christian (--) Allen. The Bucklands are in the Great Migration 1634-35 I:454-56. The Allens (George is the immigrant) is in the same volume pp. 27-35. Deborah (Allen) Buckland was buried at Rehoboth on 27 November 1690 [Rehoboth VRs, II:805]. The actual record reads " Deborah [blank] of Joseph was buried 27 November 1690. The word missing is wife. The daughter of Joseph, Deborah Buckland married Hugh Cole at Rehoboth on 6 May 1681 and died on 7 November 1724. It cannot be she. This leaves Joseph and Deborah, widow of John Barrows free to marry in 1693. They did and moved to Rehoboth. Joseph died there on 28 March 1718 and "Deborah Buckland widow" died there 1 April 1720. [Rehoboth VRs, II:805]. Neither leaves any probate papers. In a series of deeds starting in 1691 Joseph gives his sons all his land. These deeds were recorded en masse after his death. For those interested, Joseph Buckland's gravestone is still extant and is in the Newman Cemetery in Rumford, Rhode Island. [note that Rehoboth was divided many times and the line establishing the border of Massachusetts and Rhode Island didn't happen until 1747.]
This explains why the younger sons of John and Deborah Barrows all moved to Rehoboth, where Benajah married, and then lived in that part which became Attleborough, Mass. and later became Cumberland, Rhode Island. It also shows that Benajah married his step-sister Lydia. Bucklin and Buckland are interchangeable. Lydia Bucklin was the youngest child of Joseph and Deborah (Allen) Buckland born in Rehoboth on 5 September 1680 [Rehoboth VRs, II:560]. Sadly there are no deeds in Bristol County or Plymouth County from Deborah as a Buckland that illuminates her birth parents precisely. However, this opens the possibility that a court record in Bristol County might exist. Whereas the Plymouth County records are all in print (for the 17th century) and have been examined exhaustedly, the Bristol County records have not been so studied.
List of deeds in Bristol County for Joseph Buckland and his sons Joseph, James, and Baruch: 11:453, 462; 12:54, 91-92, 489; 13:358; 14:162.